Life History 1892-1946
Percy S. Hawkes was born
December 2, 1892, in Richmond, Utah, to his father, Joshua Hawkes, and his
mother, Sarah Ann Smart Hawkes. He
was their sixth child. This family
was the second family in a polygamist family.
Percy was number 15 of a total of 16 children.
Soon after his birth his
family moved back to Franklin, Idaho, where his father had previously (1876 to
1884) served as mayor for eight years. Idaho
became the 43rd state July 3, 1890.
Utah became the 45th state on January 4, 1896.
His mother, Sarah Ann,
longed for a home and place of her own away from the large extended family in
Cache Valley. She was able to
prevail upon her husband to come with her, and move her family of seven children
north into the new country being homesteaded in the upper Snake River Valley in
They selected and
homesteaded a ranch near the townsite which is now known as Drummond, Idaho.
It was the spring of 1896 when they filed on the homestead, and spring in
1897, when they moved the family by horse drawn wagons to their new home site in
a place called Horseshoe Flat. Percy
was a four year old child when this historic move was made.
Some of the older married children from the first family also came and
settled in the near vicinity with their small families.
Joseph Bryant and his family came just a few days later and L.J. and
family came in 1898. Other brothers
from the older family also came seasonally to work but not to settle.
There were other good
reasons for Sarah Ann wanting to make the move north. Her sister Mary Jane Smart Webster and her husband James
Whaley Webster together with their brother William Henry Smart and his wife Anne
Haines, had formed the Smart & Webster Livestock Company and had
moved to the Rexburg area the year before, in 1895. Another sister Alice Fleet Smart Pratt and her husband
William Jared Pratt had moved to Wilford three years earlier, in 1883.
William J. Pratt had
looked over this new virgin country east of St. Anthony and Wilford on his way
to the timberlands to get firewood and logs.
He liked what he saw very much. From
the extended Thomas Sharrett Smart family then living in Cache Valley, he
recruited, encouraged, and helped them to move and locate in this new area near
The following people
including his own son, Thomas Henry Pratt, all moved into the Drummond area and
took up homesteads or settled there, in the years 1895 to 1898.
They were all related and members of the extended Smart family by birth
or by marriage: Ossian Leonidas Packer, Nathan Packer, Joshua & Sarah Ann
Hawkes, Joseph Bryant Hawkes, Lewis Joshua Hawkes, John Ervin Morrison, &
Lorin M. Mendenhall.
Percy helped his father
and brothers build their two roomed log cabin.
Later as a man, he would marry, come back to farm, and start his own
family of six children in this very same log cabin, and live in it with them for
Information on these very
early years of their life on the new homestead can best be learned from reading
the writings of his older brother Acil S. Hawkes. He wrote a book titled, “Luxury in a Covered
Wagon,” which was later edited and published by Kelly D. Hawkes.
This book gives an intimate detailed picture of how the family traveled
from Franklin, Idaho, and entered this beautiful spot and eventually made it
their home. This farm has remained
in the Hawkes family ever since that time.
Here are some
excerpts from the above mentioned book:
“With covered wagon....
we came to the crest of the hill overlooking the place they had called Horseshoe
Flat.... a very beautiful place, covered with a sea of tall grass intermingled
with flowers of blues and yellows... what quietness.. and peace.”
& Sarah Ann Hawkes & children, Estes, Acil, Percy, Effie, &
LeGrande. “On the
homesteads...without gun or tent...build a cabin...used snow from the
bluffs...posts from the groves...dig a ditch...build a bowery...dig a deep water
well by hand...plow one or two acres of sod per day...we will make something of
Summers were spent
developing the homestead with new buildings, farm land, and livestock.
The winters were spent in Rexburg, thirty miles down the valley to the
southwest. There the children could go to school and the family could be away
from the deeper snow and drifts. Each
fall his mother, Sarah Ann, would box things up in the cabin, and see that the
kitchen stove was loaded in the wagon. They
would haul their belongings to a rented cabin near Rexburg, and unload the stove
and other things to use during the winter months.
Percy was baptized when
eight years old on July 12, 1900, by Hans Neilson, probably in Fall River near
Hans’ Home. He was confirmed by
James Green the same day. The
warmer season was chosen because there were no buildings with fonts available at
that time. That was much better
than being baptized soon after his birthday which was December 2nd.
His father, Joshua, helped organize and was the president of the first
Sunday School in the Conant Branch, in 1900.
We can only imagine the
events of his childhood days. We
can picture in our mind the joys and difficulties he had as he participated with
the rest of the family in everyday life. They
were not yet blessed with the luxuries of life but worked hard to make a meager
living and get a good education.
Percy was on hand to help
haul logs and firewood from the forest which lay 10 miles east of their place.
For several years they hauled water in barrels from Conant Creek which
was four miles away. A successful
well was dug by hand in one day in their front yard.
This well furnished water for them, nearby neighbors, and travelers for
many years. Horses were used to do
farm work, ride as saddle horses, and pull the wagons and buggy.
Cattle furnished milk, butter, cheese, & meat, but had to be grazed,
tended, and milked. He probably got
a turn herding cows in the surrounding hills and vales.
Percy went many a time
with his father and brothers to work on the Conant Creek Canal Company.
They were digging a sizeable ditch ten or more miles long, east of
Drummond, that would bring water from the creek and out onto the farm lands.
As they would camp on site, or be in the forest overnight, his father
would relate many stories and experiences he had had during his early life.
His father was 60 years
old, and his mother was 41 when they first came to this new home.
His father had stories to tell from the days of Joseph Smith and building
the temple in Nauvoo, crossing the plains in wagons, settling in Utah, Indian
Wars, Johnson’s Army, his own escape from the hands of persecution, and
finally having to spend a winter (1888) in jail in Boise, Idaho, for living the
church law of polygamy. His father loved to sing songs, tell stories, and was a happy
and jovial man.
In addition to his
advanced age, his father had a very sore leg which had troubled him through the
years. As time went on, he was not
able to keep up to the hard work of farming, ranching, and etc.
He finally turned the work over to his family and went back to live the
remainder of his life in Franklin and Logan where he worked in the temple and
rested from the rigors of such a hard life.
His father died March 5, 1914, in Logan Utah, at 78 years of age.
(Joshua’s life history has been compiled and published in 1996, by his
grandson, Percy Blaine Hawkes.)
Percy attended elementary
school in Rexburg and then the Ricks Academy for a while.
This was the forerunner of Ricks College.
He later attended the Agricultural College in Logan, Utah.
Sometime in the years
between 1910 and 1912, Percy and his mother, Sarah Ann Hawkes, both decided to
go to the Raft River area and homestead some farm land there.
The following is a little background on how that came about.
The Francis C. Gunnell family was called on a mission to help settle the
Rexburg, Idaho area. Father Gunnell
was called to serve in the first stake presidency, as the second counselor to
Thomas E. Ricks in 1884. A son,
Frank Owen Gunnell, later met Percy’s sister, Alsamina S. Hawkes, as they both
lived in the Rexburg area. They
fell in love and were married in 1905.
Earlier, many of the
extended Gunnell family had taken up homesteads in the Raft River area.
Frank and Elsie (Alsamina) decided to make this area their new home.
Their homestead was one mile southwest of the town of Naf. Sometime during this time frame, Percy and his mother were
attracted to this area and each homesteaded tracts of land.
They turned the Horseshoe Flat homestead land over to one of the older
Hawkes sons, Estes, and put their energies into this new adventure in Raft
Percy built a cabin on his
Raft River homestead and commenced to try to raise crops.
The weather was very hot and dry, and soil was too alkali to produce much
of a crop. The wild rabbits became
so prolific that they would come into the area and eat up most of the grain.
The farmers would conduct “Rabbit Drives” which consisted of several
men and boys walking about 100 feet apart across the fields and gradually
cornering the rabbits into pens. Then
they would shoot or club them by the hundreds.
Their bodies were hauled off for pig feed or buried.
The Raft River venture was
soon abandoned by Percy and his mother. She
moved back to Cache Valley. By
1913, Percy spent his summers back in the Drummond area working on the farms
with his older brothers, especially, Acil. In the winters he would move back home to Logan and attend
school. Then, in the spring go back
to the farm and work for his brothers in Idaho.
LeGrande Hawkes, left Salt Lake City, to serve in the Eastern States Mission, on
April 10, 1912. The last entry in
his very good missionary journal is dated November 6, 1913.
Percy was ordained an
Elder and received the Melchizedek Priesthood, February 17, 1915, from Dan. S.
On November 17, 1917, he
received a patriarchal blessing in Wellsville, Utah, from Alexander J. Spence.
Percy asked for and received other patriarchal blessings, and special
priesthood blessings through the years. These
blessings were a great strength and comfort to him in special times in his life,
and in times of discouragement or stress. He
had great faith in the power of the priesthood to give blessings of comfort, and
administrations in times of sickness, etc.
On December 15, 1917, soon
after his 25th birthday, he joined the United States Navy.
This was during the time of World War I.
He spent the last few months of his enlistment in a place near San Diego,
California, call “Goat Island.” It
was a place of quarantine for people who might be carriers of some communicable
disease that was prevalent at the time. While
he was on this island the war ended and thus he was able to be discharged. He was discharged as a Shipwright, from San Francisco,
California, on January 15, 1919.
On April 16, 1919, Percy
attended the Logan Temple in Logan, Utah, and there received his temple
endowments. This was a great
blessing to him in many ways and helped to prepare him to later serve a mission
for the church.
Percy received a
patriarchal blessing given by Hyrum G. Smith in SLC, on June 4, 1919.
Now, that he was home from
the Navy, his mother deeded over to him one of the 80 acre parcels of land on
the east side of Horseshoe Flat that she owned. With this and some other leased acreage, he began his own
farming operation. He still worked
part-time for his brothers Acil and Estes.
They helped him out at times and he in turn worked for them at day labor
when they needed an extra farmhand. He
was raising winter wheat, spring wheat, & oats, and summerfallowing one half
of his land each year.
By August 2, 1920, he was
able to purchase his first car. By
May 21, 1923, he had acquired a tractor which needed overhauling after a
neighbor had borrowed it for an extended period.
He and his brother, Acil, did the overhaul job, but later, ended up
putting a new motor in it. Horses
were used before that time, and after that time, when occasion required.
On March 27, 1922, Percy
received another patriarchal blessing from George R. Hill, in Logan, Utah.
On November 18, 1923,
Percy bid goodby to his mother, family, and friends, and left Salt Lake City to
fill a mission in England. He was
now 31 years old. He enjoyed the
railroad trip across the United States and the voyage across the Atlantic by
boat. His mission president was
David O. McKay. He had a very
successful mission, but suffered poor health while in England. After 13 months Pres. McKay decided to release him and bring
him home on the same ship with his family, as they were being released and
coming home. He arrived home on
December 19, 1924.
Percy wrote a wonderful
personal missionary journal describing his daily work and experiences.
In it he bore a strong testimony of the Gospel, The Savior, Father in
Heaven, and the many blessings he had received from going on his mission.
There is included at the end of this written history a 35 page type
written copy of his missionary journal. It
gives the reader a full knowledge of the type and quality of a man that Percy S.
Hawkes was and is. His mission has
been a great blessing to those who read the journal, and those others he
contacted in England, as well as to himself, and the Lord.
He continued living in
Logan in the winter months. In the
summers he would come back and engage in the business of farming.
His brother, Estes, and family, had by now, 1926, moved to Boise, Idaho.
Percy was able to acquire some of the land Estes had been operating.
His mother had deeded some of the original homestead acreage to him in
Horseshoe Flat, and he rented other nearby land including some state land.
By 1927, he was farming several hundred acres.
In January of 1927, while
living in Logan in the winter, he happened to go to an MIA Dance in one of the
wards. It was there that he first
met Ida Weyerman of North Logan. They
continued their acquaintance and finally courtship. On August 3, 1927, they were married and sealed in the Logan
Temple, by Joseph R. Shepherd.
Ida had been working in
the hospital for a while and hoped to pursue nursing as a life’s career.
Percy’s crop of grain was now ready to harvest, the honeymoon time was
spent hurrying up to the ranch and getting right into the harvest.
Ida’s main job was cooking for the harvest crew of men.
Percy was very busy for several weeks—following the threshing crew from
one farm to another as they took turns at one farmer’s place and then
another—helping each other, as they did in those days.
The following summer, on
July 1, 1928, their first child, a son, Percy Blaine Hawkes, was born, in Logan,
Utah. Because of a complication in
the birth process, Ida suffered a serious infection problem that almost cost her
life. It took about a year for her
to recover and gain her strength back. During
this recovery, she spent most of the time in Logan, living at Mother Sarah Ann
Hawkes’ home with her new baby.
On October 31, 1930, a
second son, Lawrence Weyerman Hawkes, was born at home in the two room log cabin
on the ranch. Dr. Hargis from
Ashton came out and attended the birth, but pretty much let nature take its
course, which it did very well. Mother
and son came through the birth process in good condition.
He was born on the night of Halloween.
By now, the ranch had some
livestock which required their attention in the winter.
So, they did not move to town, but stayed on the ranch and did what work
was at hand to be done in the winter and tended the cows, horses, chickens,
pigs, etc. Percy and Acil
continued to trade work on their farms, both labor and equipment.
When something needed done they each helped the other out and by this
cooperation both families were greatly benefited.
Percy was a carpenter and
used his skill to make furniture items that were needed about the house.
Ida was a skilled homemaker and together they worked and fixed their home
up very cozy and comfortable. There
was the butchering of hogs and animals for meat, chopping wood for the stoves to
heat the house and cook the food. Water
was drawn from the open well and carried into the house for drinking, cooking,
bathing, washing, etc.
One half of the dry farm
acreage was planted each year into grain
crops. The other half was plowed
and clean cultivated through the summer so that no weeds would grown and sap the
moisture from the ground. The soil
in this area is very good to preserve the rain water and the snow that melts in
the spring. This method is called
“summer fallowing.” By farming
this way a crop is raised every other year, but has the advantage of two years
of stored moisture. Sometimes if a
few scattered weeds were growing here and there in the summer fallow, Percy and
Ida and the children would go out with garden hoes and walk through the field
about 10 paces apart and chop out the offenders.
On March 29, 1933,
their third child, a son, Lloyd Hawkes was born at Logan, Utah.
Percy was sustained as the
Bishop of the Farnum Ward, Yellowstone Stake on September 24, 1933.
Thomas H. Murdoch was 1st Counselor, Stillman Whittle 2nd
Counselor, & Brigham Murdoch Clerk. Later,
Blaine Peterson, and Curtis Marsden both served as counselors, and Lester
Hendrickson as Clerk.
Percy was ordained a High
Priest on October 9, 1933, by George Albert Smith. He served faithfully as a bishop for seven years and was
released November 17, 1940. While
he was bishop, he and his family lived in Horseshoe Flat for five of the seven
years. During this time the family
drove the four miles from their home to the Farnum Church house by automobile or
horse drawn sleigh in the winter. Percy
also had to do many of the annual reports at the end of each year to send to the
Salt Lake City church offices.
During much of his term of
office as bishop, he and his family had to do the custodial work of the church
building. This included starting
wood fires early each Sunday morning in the big stove that heated the main
chapel room and another heater in the basement area that was used for
classrooms. The floor needed to be
swept and cleaned, the linen for the sacrament table laundered, and various
other items to be readied each week.
One incident that took
place in the last two years of his term of office was particularly vexing to
him. He, by then, had begun to
operate some of the land that lay to the North of the church house.
At harvest time it was the custom for the farmers to work together and
cooperatively hire a large threshing machine to come around to each farm by
turns, then together all the farmers would help haul the bundles of grain in to
the threshing machine. Some of the non-member neighbors, including the man who owned
the threshing machine, decided to play a prank on Percy as he was now the
The plan was to move
around the neighborhood in such a way that one of his harvest days would fall on
a Sunday. Then they would force him
to be out working on the Sabbath while his congregation was holding services in
plain sight of the church house. He,
of course, protested this turn of events. They
told him either he would work on Sunday or they would pull out and move the
threshing machine to the upper country 20 miles away and not return again for
the rest of that season.
So, much to his chagrin he
did have to comply with their unjust terms.
He suffered much that day as he worked in the field just north of the
church house and saw the people come and go to church.
He vowed that day that he would never again be put in that kind of a
compromising position. The next season he bought a combine of his own so that he
could harvest on the days of the week he wanted to.
Percy’s mother, Sarah
Ann Smart Hawkes, passed away November 3, 1934, at Logan, Utah, at the age of 79
years. Percy was now 42 years of
age. He had been very close to his
mother and missed her very much.
In the fall of 1934, Percy
and Ida’s children were starting elementary school. They took turns with the neighbors hauling the children to
Drummond where they attended school. In
the winter a covered bobsled was heated by a small stove and pulled by a team of
horses. The driver sat inside with
the children to keep warm. Leather
lines were slipped through a slot in the front to guide the horses.
To receive some special
counsel and comfort, Percy asked for and received a special Priesthood blessing
from Henry W. Miller, Patriarch of the Yellowstone Stake, on July 13, 1935.
This and other blessings are found at the end of this written history.
On August 17, 1936, a
beautiful daughter, Norma Ruth Hawkes, was born at Logan, Utah, to Percy and
Ida. She was the pride and joy of
the family, the only girl in a household of five brothers.
Percy received word that
his brother, LeGrande, had passed away on March 26, 1937, at his home in St.
Louis, MO. A fire had started in
the living room and he had suffocated.
On April 18, 1937, Percy
and Ida moved into a new addition on their 2 room log cabin.
It was a two roomed frame house that had been moved over from the Cazier
place the fall of 1936. It was
brought in on log skids and placed on the west side of the log cabin.
The two houses were inner-connected in such a way as to allow easy
access. This made the home almost
twice as big. Earlier, Percy had
built a small one bedroom addition on the east side of the house for the boys to
sleep in. The home was growing in
size as the number of children increased in the family.
A humorous incident
occurred one cold night in the boys bedroom.
Ida came in and asked if another blanket was needed as it was getting
colder each hour. Lawrence replied,
“No, Mother, we don’t want to have to get another blanket warm.”
In the fall of 1937,
Lawrence contracted scarlet fever and the family had to be quarantined under
doctors orders for a couple of weeks until he recovered.
After that, the house was fumigated to kill the germs and closed up for
three days. The family stayed at
Chester and Neva French’s home during that time.
A tragedy occurred earlier
one Christmas season. The tree was
decorated with ornaments, candles, icicles, & etc.
Lawrence had wanted to dress up like Santa Claus and come into the room
and surprise everyone. His mother helped him get ready in the bedroom.
When he came out looking just like Santa with cotton whiskers around his
face, ears, etc. there was great excitement.
However, he came too close to the burning candles on the tree and all at
once he was on fire. Percy threw
him down and quickly rolled him up in a throw rug to put out the fire.
Ida got some burn ointment and treated the burned areas.
His ears, neck, and face were scorched.
Percy gave him a priesthood blessing.
He was blessed and was able to recover without any scars or blemishes.
In January 1938, Percy
became quite discouraged with several things.
Many families had moved away from the ward and church attendance was down
to about one dozen that attended the meetings. He was worried that the ward would soon have to be dissolved
because of lack of members. (Ten years later, Jan. 11, 1948, it was dissolved
and made part of the Marysville Ward.)
Another worry was the
price of grain. They had been
blessed with a very good crop and had 3500 bushels of wheat to sell, but the
price had fallen to only 72 cents per bushel.
He had invested in a T20 International crawler tractor. He had traded in a wheel tractor for $500.00 on the crawler,
but still owed a balance due on the deal.
Electricity had not yet
come to the rural area. A 12 volt
wind charger generated enough electricity to charge a bank of batteries, when
the wind blew. This furnished a
light bulb in each room and would operate the radio.
There was a piano in the home given by Percy’s mother in Logan.
Percy played by ear with both hands and the family enjoyed singing
together as he played. He also
bought a mandolin and learned to play it. Blaine
took piano lessons from Belle Lupton in Ashton once a week.
In the fall of 1938, Percy
and his brother, Acil, decided to trade farms.
Acil and his wife, May, had built a big beautiful new home in Farnum
about ¾ of a mile northwest of the church house. It was built in 1918-1919 and had electricity, a set of out
buildings for livestock, a good dooryard, garden, apple and shade trees, etc.
Thirty plus acres of good irrigated land and pasture surrounded the
building site. The farm totaled 160
acres of good deeded land. (Percy
farmed other rented ground and later bought 80 acres from Herbert Benson one
mile east of this home place. This
gave him enough acreage, and with a small livestock operation, enough to earn a
fair income for his family.)
Acil and family moved to
California each winter and only lived in their farm home in the summer.
Percy and his family lived on the Horseshoe Flat homestead the year
around in the original two room log cabin with an addition on it.
Percy had more land (400 acres) to trade,
but the offer of the much nicer home and 160 acres of land clinched the
During the month of
December the actual move was made and Percy’s family spent the Christmas of
1938 in their new home. The
children now attended the Farnum School, a two-room stone building one mile west
of the Farnum Church. All eight
grades were taught in two rooms by two teachers.
Percy served as a trustee in
the Farnum School District #64 from 1939 to 1943.
He also took his turn periodically being the “Bus Driver,” which was
a car in the summer and a covered sleigh in the winter.
Percy was released as
Bishop of Farnum Ward, November 17, 1940, and sustained to the Yellowstone Stake
High Council, November 20, 1940, where he served until Dec. 16, 1945.
He enjoyed this new assignment and his association with Pres. Horace A.
Hess, Karl C. Klingler, & E. Glen Cameron, the Stake Presidency.
Oliver K. Meservy was the stake clerk.
Other members of the High Council were: Royal A. Grover, Erastus P.
Peterson, Ira E. Rudd, Severin Swensen, Eli M. Jergensen, Fred Porter, Eugene O.
Rich, Floyd Law, Burdette Remington, Emmett Hunter, and J. Edgar Birch.
He was able to travel
around the Ashton/St.Anthony area which was all one big stake with about 14
wards in it. Every three months a
quarterly conference was held in the tabernacle in St. Anthony, with a visiting
authority from Salt Lake City in attendance.
During one of these conferences, his former mission president in England,
David O. McKay, now one of the twelve apostles was visiting.
As Brother McKay sat on the stand he recognized the former missionary he
had known 20 years earlier. He communicated for Percy to come up to the front after the
meeting. They had a good visit,
which was a thrill to both of them and Percy’s family.
A son, Richard Reed
Hawkes, was born November 18, 1940, in Rexburg, Idaho.
Richard was the fifth child, and the fourth son born to Percy and Ida.
He was born two years after the move from the Horseshoe Flat homestead to
the new home in Farnum.
On December 7, 1941, the
Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor and the United States became involved in World
War II. Percy had served in the
U.S. Navy in World War I. Now, a
great defense effort was started all over the United States to build military
installations. People from all
walks of life were asked to help out if they could.
As Percy was a skilled
carpenter, on January 30, 1942, he joined the Idaho State Defense Council and
went to work at Mountain Home, near Boise.
He was involved the rest of that winter building buildings, etc. for the
Air Force Base. Ida and the
children stayed on the farm and tended & took care of the livestock.
The older boys were now in their teens and so were able to manage the
livestock in his absence. He went, out of patriotic duty and also to supplement the
He came back in the spring
of 1942, to be with the family and to operate the farm.
Blaine worked that summer (and until 1945) for Walter Clark on his dry
farm in Squirrel. After the harvest
was over that fall he decided to go away again to work in the defense program.
He joined the United Brotherhood of Carpenters October, 27, 1942, and
worked in the SLC/Ogden area at the Hill Air Force Base during much of that
Percy was a jovial person
and loved to sing, dance, play the piano, and mandolin.
He was pleasant to be around and would relate stories of times gone by.
He had a testimony of the gospel and lived a good life. However, he suffered from sciatic rheumatism, milk leg, and
some depression at times.
On November 14, 1945,
Percy and Ida purchased 80 acres of land from Herbert and Alta Benson as they
were moving to the Rexburg area. This
land lay one mile east of their home place and 60 acres of it could be
irrigated. This made a good
addition to the farming operation.
Because of the stress of
life and health conditions he asked Stake Pres. Horace A. Hess to release him
from the High Council. He was
released December 16, 1945, after serving in that position for five years.
On March 31, 1945, David
Weyerman Hawkes was born in St. Anthony, Idaho. David was the fifth son, and sixth child in the family.
He was 2 ½ months old when his father, Percy passed away on June 12th
in St. Anthony, Idaho, at the age of 53 ½.
Ida was 38 years old.
Percy was buried June 15th
at Ashton, Fremont County, Idaho. A
copy of his funeral proceedings are found at the end of this history.
Also found there is a copy of his missionary journal, patriarchal
blessings, written memories of his wife, Ida, and each of his now living
children and others who knew him.
Home + Historical Summary + Life History + Missionary Journal + Memories of Percy + Special Blessings + Bibliography + Contact
If there are any additions or corrections that would make this more complete please send them to P. Blaine Hawkes.